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Cardiovascular Disease

The signs and symptoms of Cardiovascular disease depends on where the blockage or damage occurs, and how much cerebral tissue is affected.

Different events have different effects, but common signs and symptoms include:

a severe and sudden headache

paralysis of one side (hemiplegia)

weakness on one side (hemiparesis)


difficulty communicating, including slurred speech

loss of half of vision

loss of balance

loss of consciousness

When you have some signs and symptoms, you should go to hospital and see a doctor as soon as possible. Diagnosing clearly and taking treatment is crucial, because some medications for stroke must be given within a certain time from the onset of symptoms.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease develop over time if kidney damage progresses slowly. Signs and symptoms of kidney disease may include:



Loss of appetite

Fatigue and weakness

Sleep problems

Urine changes like frequent urination at night, decreased urine volume

Decreased mental sharpness

Muscle twitches and cramps

Swelling of feet and ankles

Persistent itching

Chest pain, if fluid builds up around the lining of the heart

Shortness of breath, if fluid builds up in the lungs

High blood pressure (hypertension) that's difficult to control

Signs and symptoms of kidney disease are often nonspecific, meaning they can also be caused by other illnesses. Because your kidneys are highly adaptable and able to compensate for lost function, signs and symptoms may not appear until irreversible damage has occurred.

Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is a serious kidney-related complication of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. It is also called diabetic kidney disease.

In early stage, you may not notice any signs and symptoms. Over time, the sign and symptoms begin to occur and include:

Worsening blood pressure control

Protein in the urine

Swelling of feet, ankles, hands or eyes

Increased need to urinate

Less need for insulin or diabetes medicine

Confusion or difficulty concentrating

Loss of appetite

Nausea and vomiting

Persistent itching


Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of kidney disease.


Diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys and other organs. General symptoms include:

Increased hunger

Increased thirsty

Weight loss

Frequent urination

Blurry vision

Extreme fatigue

Sores that do not heal

Besides, men with diabetes may have a decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction and poor muscle strength. Women with diabetes may have symptoms such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and dry, itchy skin.


Dialysis is a treatment that takes over your kidney functions if those organs stop doing their job. But with time going on, dialysis can cause some complications, including:

1. Low blood pressure

It is the most common side effect of dialysis, affecting one out of four patients at some point over the course of dialysis treatments. The two main causes are gaining excess fluid weight between sessions and having a weak heart.

2. Dry or itchy skin

It is caused by high phosphorus, so it is important to follow your diet plan and take your phosphate binders regularly as prescribed.

3. Nausea and vomiting

It is related to kidney disease in general, but low blood pressure and excess fluid weight gain are also common causes. If you have nausea and vomiting during your dialysis, tell your nurse to adjust your dialysis machine accordingly.

4. Restless leg syndrome

It is associated with some forms of kidney disease, diabetes, hardening of the arteries, or a vitamin B deficiency. Thus, it is important to speak to your healthcare provider for a diagnosis and a prescription which will address the specific cause.

5. Muscle Cramps

It causes extreme discomfort to many patients. The cause of this side effect is unknown, so the issue can only be addressed by trying to relieve symptoms. You can stretch the cramped muscles to release the pain or applying hot packs to the affected area to help increase circulation.

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a disease in which scar tissue develops on the parts of the kidneys that filter waste from the blood (glomeruli). FSGS can be caused by a variety of conditions.

People who have FSGS often show no signs or symptoms of the disease unless progressive damage to the kidneys severely interferes with their normal function. FSGS can cause asymptomatic proteinuria, a condition where protein leaks into the urine, or nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by:

Foamy urine caused by large amounts of protein

Low serum albumin due to loss of protein

Weight gain caused by fluid retention

Edema (swollen ankles, feet, hands, face or abdomen)

High blood pressure (often seen with primary FSGS)

If it is untreated, about 50-70 percent of patients with FSGS will suffer from kidney failure eventually. But even if treated, FSGS may still progress to kidney failure within six to eight years after the onset of proteinuria. When kidney failure occurs, patients will be suggested to take dialysis or transplant to survive.

High Creatinine Level

Elevated creatinine level signifies impaired kidney function or kidney disease. People with high creatinine level from injured kidneys may have the following symptoms:

Feeling dehydrated


Swelling (edema)

Shortness of breath


Many other nonspecific symptoms (for example, nausea, vomiting, neuropathy, and dry skin)

It is very important to get your kidneys diagnosed periodically if you have high creatinine levels. Some individuals may have severe kidney disease and high creatinine levels without displaying any symptoms while others usually develop the above symptoms.

IgA Nephropathy

IgA Nephropathy is an autoimmune system disease. It usually does not cause symptoms in the early stage. The disease can go unnoticed for decades and is sometimes first suspected when routine tests reveal protein and red blood cells in your urine that can't be seen without a microscope (microscopic hematuria).

Signs and symptoms of IgA Nephropathy may include:

Cola or tea-colored urine (from red blood cells in the urine)

Relapse of cola-or-tea-colored urine, sometimes even visible blood in your urine, usually during or after an upper respiratory or other type of infection

Pain in the sides of your back below your ribs (flank)

Swelling in your hands and feet

High blood pressure

Make an appointment with your doctor if you see blood in your urine. Urine blood may be caused by strenuous exercise, some foods, medications or a urinary tract infection. But if bloody urine for a long time or repeated bleeding may show a serious medical problem and should always be evaluated. Also see your doctor if you develop sudden swelling in your hands and feet.

Kidney Failure



Not feeling hungry

Trouble sleeping

Too much urine or not enough urine

Decreased mental sharpness

Muscle cramps

Swelling of feet and ankles

High blood pressure that is difficult to control

Shortness of breath if fluid builds up in the lungs

Chest pain, if fluid builds up around the lining of the heart

Itchy skin

Having one or more of any of the symptoms above may be a sign of serious kidney problems. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should contact your doctor right away.

Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that, together, show that your kidneys are not working as well as they should. The symptoms of nephrotic syndrome include:

Too much protein in your urine (proteinuria)

Weight gain

Not feeling hungry

Low levels of protein in your blood (hypoalbuminia)

High levels of fat and cholesterol in your blood

Swelling in your legs, feet, ankles, and sometimes face and hands

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you.

Polycystic Kidney Disease

People who have PKD were born with it. PKD is almost always inherited from a parent or from both parents.

Children sometimes have symptoms of ADPKD, but people with the disease usually do not notice symptoms until they are between 30 and 50 years old. Symptoms might include:

Back and side pain


Blood in your urine

People with autosomal dominant PKD commonly have kidney pain and high blood pressure. Other complications of ADPKD might include:

Kidney failure/ESRD

Urinary tract infections

Kidney stones

Liver cysts

Cysts in your pancreas

Heart valve problems

Colon problems

Brain aneurysms

A serious pregnancy problem, called preeclampsia (in pregnant women who have ADPKD and high blood pressure).

When you have any of the symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor.


Tumor is divided into benign and malignant tumor. So its symptoms are also different.

People with benign tumor may have local compression symptom and generally have no systemic symptoms. It often does not cause death. While people with malignant tumor may have low fever, decreased appetite and reduced body weight in early stage. In late stage, people can have serious wasting, anemia and fever, etc. If untreated timely, it can cause death.

Since benign and malignant tumor has different clinical manifestations and also different prognosis. Therefore, once you find body mass and the above symptoms, you should seek timely medical treatments.


***Please seek professional medical advise for the diagnosis or treatment of any ailment, disease or medical condition. This article is not intended to be a substitute for the advice of a licensed medical professional.***

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