Why Do Kidney Disease Patients Have High Blood Calcium Level
For kidney patients, they are prone to electrolyte disturbance. Why do kidney disease patients have high blood calcium level? Read on to learn more information.
Causes of high blood calcium for kidney patients
In the early stage of renal failure, blood calcium is decreased. Hypocalcemia can stimulate hyperplasia of parathyroid gland and increase PTH, which can increase blood calcium level. For patients with renal failure, when the blood calcium is normal or elevated, the feedback of blood calcium is slow, which makes the parathyroid gland proliferate continuously and uncontrollably, leading to secondary hyperparathyroidism, manifesting as multiple parathyroid glands proliferate to varying degrees. At this time, the symptoms and hazards of hypercalcemia are very prominent, even more than renal failure itself.
Symptoms of hypercalcemia
Increased serum calcium concentration can cause symptoms and signs of many systems, including:
(1) Central nervous system: you may have indifference, depression, personality changes, slow reaction, memory loss, irritability, allergy, suspicion, insomnia, emotional instability and accelerated aging. Occasionally there are obvious psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, mania, and even coma.
(2) Neuromuscular system: easy to fatigue, limb muscle weakness, proximal muscle especially, severe muscle atrophy, which may be accompanied by abnormal electromyogram.
(3) Digestive system: Hypercalcemia causes neuromuscular irritation, reduced gastrointestinal smooth muscle tension, and slow gastrointestinal peristalsis, resulting in loss of appetite, abdominal distension, constipation. In serious case, there is nausea, vomiting, acid reflux, and upper abdominal pain. In addition, hypercalcemia can stimulate gastrin secretion, increase gastric acid, and cause ulcer disease. After hypercalcemia is corrected, hypergastric acid, hypergastrinemia and ulcer can be corrected.
(4) Urinary system: Hypercalcemia affects renal tubular concentration, resulting in polyuria, polydipsia and thirst. Urinary calculi are prone to occur, including renal colic, hematuria, and secondary urinary tract infection. Repeated attacks can lead to renal insufficiency.
(5) The ectopic deposition of calcium salt in many tissues and organs causes corresponding symptoms. For example, calcium ions are easily deposited in pancreatic ducts and pancreas with alkaline pancreatic juice and activate trypsinogen and trypsin. About 5% of patients have acute or chronic pancreatitis.
Treatment for hypercalcemia
(1) To prevent calcium absorption and reduce the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. Prednisone can be taken if a large amount of vitamin D has been used.
(2) To increase urinary calcium excretion through sodium supplementation and diuresis. The use of loop diuretics (such as furosemide) to inhibit calcium reabsorption by ascending medullary loop of renal tubules can not only further increase urinary calcium excretion, but also prevent hypernatremia and heart failure.
(3) Calcitonin can inhibit bone resorption by osteoclasts and calcium reabsorption by renal tubules, which is beneficial to the excretion of sodium and calcium.
(4) When the above treatment is ineffective or it seriously endangers life, peritoneal Dialysis or hemodialysis can be used to reduce serum calcium level.
(5) When the harm of hypercalcemia is prominent and the drug treatment is ineffective, prompt and decisive surgery should be carried out to remove adenomas or excess growth tissue, which is the fundamental treatment for hypercalcemia.
Why do kidney disease patients have high blood calcium level? Now you get the answer. For more information on kidney disease, please leave a message below or contact online doctor.
***Please seek professional medical advise for the diagnosis or treatment of any ailment, disease or medical condition. This article is not intended to be a substitute for the advice of a licensed medical professional.***